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Case Study(Nepal Telecom(NTC))1----Project(Organization and Management)

TRIBHUVAN UNIVERSITY

ADVANCED COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND MANAGEMENT
Kupendole, Lalitpur



A CASE STUDY IN
MOBILE COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY
IN FIELD VISIT WITH
NEPAL TELECOMMUNICATION CORPORATION LIMITTED
CENTRAL OFFICE, BHADRAKALI







SUBMITTED TO:
Mr. Shyam Krishna Joshi
Associate Professor IOE.
Date of Submission: 2063\10


TRIBHUVAN UNIVERSITY

ADVANCED COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND MANAGEMENT
Kupendole, Lalitpur







A Case Study In
MOBILE COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY
In Field Visit With
Nepal Telecommunication Corporation Limited
Central Office, Bhadrakali


SUBMITTED TO:
Mr. Shyam Krishna Joshi
Associate Professor IOE.

SUBMITTED BY:
1.
2.
3.

Date of Submission: 2063\10
TABLE OF CONTENTS


Forewords
Acknowledgements……………………………………
Abstract………………………………………………
Something to say from all members
List of figures…………………………………………
References and Bibliography………………………

1. Introduction
1.1 Mobile Communication System
1.2 Nepal Telecommunication Corporation Limited

2. Internal Organization of Nepal Telecom
2.1 Tree Structure of Level Position
2.2 The Policy and Executive Group
2.3 The Administrative and Functional Groups
2.4 The Prevailing branches of Nepal Telecom
2.5 The Provisions for the office personnel
2.6 The summary of the services offered by NTCL
2.7 Revenues collected by NTCL

3. The wireless communication Technology
3.1 The History of Wireless Communication in Nepal
3.2 The Wireless Communication Network in Nepal
3.3 Some Models of Wireless Communications
3.4 The Currently Launched Wireless Communication Services in Nepal
3.5 Role of NTC in mobile communication in Nepal
3.6 The limitations of wireless communications
3.7 The Future Trends of Wireless Communications
4. Limitations and Conclusions
4.1 limitations of NTCL
4.2 suggestion and recommendations


































FOREWORDS

This case study entitled “A Case Study in Mobile Communication Technology In Field Visit To Nepal Telecommunication Corporation Limited, Bhadrakali” is performed for the subject “Organisation And Management” in the Seventh Semester of Bachelor In Electronics And Communication Engineering as per the
Curriculum of Tribhuvan University, Institute Of Engineering.

The sole intension of this case study is to relate the managerial theories so far acquired with the practical aspect. It helps to gain the structure of the organisation, the different levels of management, the acts and policies related managerial issues of the management as well as make us aware of the our field related terms and terminologies, and the wireless communication in Nepal as provided by the Nepal Telecommunication Corporation Limited, a semi government vital communication related organization that carries and care for our future.















ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


We record our appreciation to our Associate Professor Mr. Shyam Krishna Joshi for making us develop the managerial skills theoretically and practically.

We would be grateful to Mr. Prakash Sigdel/Amulendra, the member in Human Resource Management Department in Nepal Telecom Corporation Limited, central Office Bhadrakali.

Last but not the least; we would like to extend thanks to all teachers and friends who directly or indirectly helped in the preparation of this case study report. The errors might have crept despite our efforts to make it errorless. The positive criticisms are always appreciated.

















ABSTRACT
This case study entitled “A Case Study On Mobile Communication Technology On Field Visit to Nepal Telecommunication Company Limited” is carried out in three phases. In the first phase, we went to the organisation with the college letter requesting the permission for the case study. We all members went first to “Nepal Telecom Training Center” which is situated in Babarmahal. There we clearly observed the negligence of the top level to the technical students. The formal procedure, according to them would take about one month and we had to bring the letter from the central office Bhadrakali. So we all decided to directly go to Bhadrakali, and then acquire sufficient information informally from the well known staffs.
In the second phase of the visit of the organisation we went with our query list and decided to distribute the concerned personnel to fill that up. But again this time also, the personnel seemed quite busy and filling by one or two people was not sufficient for data collection interpretation, analyzing and drawing a convincing conclusion. Hence we decided to pick up one staff, representing the manpower managing branch, luckily we got Mr. Prakash Sigdel to help us.
In the third phase, we obtained the information and data necessary for our case study from NTCL, net and from the office personnel. We technically observed the CDMA control rooms, trunk stations and other general workings. Then we finally came with this case study.
In our case study, first we have included our introduction section in chapter one where we have provided the introductory profile of NTCL and the Mobile communication System. Then chapter two deals with the organizational structure of NTCL , management models , office personnel management , different departments and their coordination, finally summary of the services offered by the NTCL.
In the third chapter, we have described some models of communication system around the world, communication system history of NTCL and models, the future trends and analytical study of backbone of NTCL and so on.
Finally, the fourth chapter points out the limitations of NTCL, improvements and suggestions forwarded to the organisation.
Concluding, we can say that we have tried best to prepare good report. However some error might have been still crept in. The availability of information may be limited and our capture range is also naturally limited and the internal affairs of NTCL couldn’t be brought that accounts for strategy leak. We hope that most data are accurate but we can’t guarantee other for than educational purposes.























INTRODUCTION

1.1 MOBILE COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

1.1 Introduction
The term mobile has historically been used to classify any radio channel that could be moved during operation. The term mobile is used to describe a radio terminal that is attached to a high speed mobile platforms(for example ,a cellular telephone in a fast moving vehicle)where as the term portable describes a radio terminal that can be hand held and used by someone at walking speed ( For example - Walky-Talky). The term subscriber is often used to describe a mobile or portable user because in most mobile communication systems, each user pays a subscription fee to use the system, and each user’s communication device is called a subscriber unit. In general, the collective group of users in a wireless system is called users or mobiles, even though many of the users may actually use portable terminals. The mobiles communicate to fixed base stations which are connected to a commercial power source and a fixed backbone network.
Mobile radio transmission systems may be classified as simplex, half duplex or full duplex. In simplex systems, communication is possible in only one direction. Paging systems, in which messages are received but not acknowledged, are simplex systems. Half Duplex radio systems allow two way communications, but use the same radio channel for both transmission and reception. This means that at any given time, a user can only transmit or receive information. Constraints like push to talk and release to listen are fundamental feature of half duplex systems. Full duplex systems on the other hand , allow simultaneous radio transmission and reception between a subscriber and a base station by providing two simultaneous but separate channels(FDD) or adjacent time slots a single radio channel(TDD) for communication to and from the user.
Frequency division duplexing (FDD) provides simultaneous radio transmission channels for the subscriber and the base station, so that they both may constantly transmit while simultaneously receiving signals from one another. At the base station separate “transmit and receive antennas” are used to accommodate the two separate channels. At the reception from the base station and a device called duplexer is used inside the subscriber unit to enables the same antennas to be used for simultaneous transmission and reception. To facilitate FDD it is necessary to separate the “transmit and receive” frequencies by about five percent of the nominal RF frequency, so that the duplexer can provide sufficient isolation while being inexpensively manufactured.
In FDD, a pair of simplex channels with a fixed and known frequency separation is used to define a specific radio channel in the system. The channel used to convey traffic to the mobile user from a base station is called the forward channel, while the channel used to carry traffic from the mobile user to a base station is called the reverse channel,( the separation of reverse channel being 45MHz below than the forward channel). FDD is used exclusively in analog mobile radio systems. Full duplex and half duplex systems use transceivers for radio communication.
Time division duplexing (TDD) uses the fact that it is possible to share a single radio channel in time, so that a portion of the time is used to transmit from the base station to the mobile, and the remaining time is used to transmit from the mobile to the base station. If the data transmission rate in the channel is much greater than the end user’s data rate, it is possible to store information bursts and provide the appearance of full duplex operation to a user, even though there are not two simultaneous radio transmissions ant any instant. TDD is only possible with digital transmission formats and digital modulation, and is very sensitive to timing. It is for this reason that TDD has only recently been used and only for indoor or small area wireless applications where the physical coverage distances (and thus propagation time delay is much smaller than the much more area in cellular telephone).

BASICS OF CELLULAR TECHNOLOGY AND USE OF RADIO SPECTRUM
Mobile operators use radio spectrum to provide their services. Spectrum is generally considered a scarce resource, and has been allocated as such. It has traditionally been shared by a number of industries, including broadcasting, mobile communications and the military. At the World Radio Conference (WRC) in 1993, spectrum allocations for 2G mobile were agreed based on expected demand growth at the time. At WRC-2000the resolutions of the WRC expanded significantly the spectrum capacity to be used for 3G, by allowing the use of current 2G spectrum blocks for 3G technology and allocating 3G spectrum to an upper limit of 3GHz.
Before the advent of cellular technology, capacity was enhanced through a division of frequencies, and the resulting addition of available channels. However, this reduced the total bandwidth available to each user, affecting the quality of service. Cellular technology allowed for the division of geographical areas, rather than frequencies, leading to a more efficient use of the radio spectrum. This geographical re-use of radio channels is knows as “frequency reuse”.
In a cellular network, cells are generally organized in groups of seven to form a cluster. There is a “cell site” or “ base station” at the centre of each cell, which houses the transmitter/receiver antennae and switching equipment. The size of a cell depends on the density of subscribers in an area: for instance, in a densely populated area, the capacity of the network can be improved by reducing the size of a cell or by adding more overlapping cells. This increases the number of channels available without increasing the actual number of frequencies being used. All base stations of each cell are connected to a central point, called the Mobile Switching Office (MSO), either by fixed lines or microwave. The MSO is generally connected to the PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network):

Cellular technology allows the “hand-off” of subscribers from one cell to another as they travel around. This is the key feature which allows the mobility of users. A computer constantly tracks mobile subscribers of units within a cell, and when a user reaches the border of a call, the computer automatically hands-off the call and the call is assigned a new channel in a different cell.

International roaming arrangements govern the subscriber’s ability to make and receive calls the home network’s coverage area.
Access Technologies
FDMA: Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) is the most common analog system. It is a technique whereby spectrum is divided up into frequencies and then assigned to users. With FDMA, only one subscriber at any given time is assigned to a channel. The channel therefore is closed to other conversations until the initial call is finished, or until it is handed-off to a different channel. A “full-duplex” FDMA transmission requires two channels, one for transmitting and the other for receiving. FDMA has been used for first generation analog systems.
TDMA: Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) improves spectrum capacity by splitting each frequency into time slots. TDMA allows each user to access the entire radio frequency channel for the short period of a call. Other users share this same frequency channel at different time slots. The base station continually switches from user to user on the channel. TDMA is the dominant technology for the second generation mobile cellular networks.
CDMA: Code Division Multiple Accesses is based on “spread” spectrum technology. Since it is suitable for encrypted transmissions, it has long been used for military purposes. CDMA increases spectrum capacity by allowing all users to occupy all channels at the same time. Transmissions are spread over the whole radio band, and each voice or data call are assigned a unique code to differentiate from the other calls carried over the same spectrum. CDMA allows for a “ soft hand-off” , which means that terminals can communicate with several base stations at the same time. The dominant radio interface for third-generation mobile, or IMT-2000will be a wideband version of CDMA with three modes (IMT-DS, IMT-MC and IMT-TC).


1.2 NEPAL TELECOMMUNICATION CORPORATION

The supreme power is the Ministry of Information and Communication of the Government of Nepal. Nepal Telecommunication Authority governs regulates and monitors all the communication and information related organisation and to provide the bandwidth of the frequencies available. It is situated in Babarmahal in Kathmandu.
Nepal Telecommunication Corporation was established in 2032 BS under the act of 2028 BS, as a governmental organisation. As a governmental organisation, this organisation was fully owned by the government and it served the country and the people until 2061 BS. In 2061/1/1 this organisation was registered as the company “Nepal Doorsanchar Company limited (Nepal Telecom)” under the company act 2053 originally which act was reviewed in 2063BS.
Nepal Doorsanchar Company Limited (Nepal Telecom) was registered on 2060-10-22 under Company Act 2053 and the notice to this effect was published in Nepal Gazette Dated 26th Chaitra 2060, after dissolving then Nepal Telecommunication Corporation (NTC). However, the company name was officially effective from 1st Baisakh 2061(13th April 2004) and the general public knows it by the name of NEPAL TELECOM and its registered trademark.

Nepal telecom, as a progressive, customer spirited and consumer responsive entity, is committed to provide nation-wide reliable telecom services to serve as an impetus to the social, political and economic development of the country.

Vision of Nepal Telecom is to remain a dominant player in telecom sector in the country while also extending reliable and cost effective services to all.
Goal of Nepal telecom is to provide cost effective telecommunication services to every nook and corner of the country.

Truly speaking, this is the semi-governmental organisation. This was originally the governmental organisation and it faced some functioning delay technical difficulties and in order to compete with the telecommunication practices this had to be established under the company act. Afterwards it became fully under the control of the executive committee and this had some degree of freedom from the political interference nominally. In some way it acquired some autonomy. But in practice, this is still under the influence of the government, as the shares are sold to the different ministries of the government of Nepal, there are no shares freely available to be sold in the open market.
This organisation has a capital of about 150 billion. Each share worth Rs. 100 and therefore in total 1.5 billions of shares. The half of the capital is shared by the Ministry Of Information and Communication. The rest being shared by Ministry Of Finance, Civilians and rest by the shareholders. However, not all the shares are freely available to be sold in the open market.

The company is under the company act 2063. The shareholders’ general assembly selects the executive committee members via the election procedure. Then the other working and managerial committees are divided. The overall organisation manpower has been up to 11th level, as shown in our tree diagram. The employees are selected as per” Karmachari Biniyamawali” where the working rules and regulations, Holidays, Funds etc related acts are prevalent.

All economy related major issues are mentioned in “Arthic Biniyamawali”. There can be direct purchasing up to 2 lakhs and tender quoted for more than 20lakhs transactions. For further more cost, sealed quotation is asked for the purchase of the equipment and the maintenance issues.




2. INTERNAL ORGANISATION OF NEPAL TELECOM
Organisation is the association of man machine and materials for the attainment of the individual or organizational goals. Every organisation has its own motive for its establishment and the organizational activities are directed for their achievement.
Some of the characteristics of organizational goals are:
1. To provide with long term and short term guidelines for the future activities not explain past activities.
2 To formulate policies in organizations to receive some sorts of benefits from it when implemented in action.
3. To provide motive force for mobilizing various resources of an organization including human resources.
4. To match organizational activities to their internal and external environment to avoid failure in achieving the desired result.
5. To form a hierarchy from the top to the lowest position in the organization structure.
6. To achieve multiple applications, a package of goals set in various key areas.

The functions of the organizational goals are:
1. Organizational goals provide a source of guidance and a sense of unified direction.
2. Goals provide the rationale to the management to make consistent and interrelated decisions that assure desired outcomes.
3. Goals facilitate the difficult task of organizational planning.
4. Goals serve as strong motivators to boost the performance of the organizational members.
PLANNING
Planning is a primary function of management .It is concerned with deciding in advance what, where, why, when and how is to be done and who is supposed to do it? It is thinking before doing. Therefore, it involves the functions of forecasting future. Planning is a bridge which is the link between where we are and where we want to go. According to Koontz and Donnell-“Planning is deciding in advance what to do, how to do it, when to do it and who to do it. Planning bridges the gap between where we are and where we want to go.”

Some of the advantages of planning are:
1. Planning helps to reduce uncertainties that may occur in the future such as change in technology, fashion, economy, political changes etc.
2. Planning helps in forecasting the future policies, methods, budgets to avoid possibility of business failure.
3. Planning focuses in achieving the organizational objectives effectively and efficiently.
4. Planning helps to have economical operations.
5. Planning helps innovative and creative thinking among managers and employees.
NTCL has been systematically carrying out its activities and plans that are generally formulated by the administrative level management. The working committee takes charge for its plans, and these formulated plans are communicated in written forms from the top level to lower level management.


ORGANIZING
Organizing is a process of creating structure. Structure refers to relationships that exist among jobs. It means designing organizational structures according to people and their positions. Organizing also refers to identification and grouping of activities, assigning the activities to the individuals and establishing of defining authority and responsibility of every organizational employee who are directly or indirectly working together to accomplish the common goals. According to Koontz and Donnell-“Organization simply refers to creation, maintenance and structure of roles to be performed by the organizational employee. Organizational structure refers to organizational chart which shows the relationships between various positions of the organizational employees in an organization”

DIRECTING

Directing is the essence of management. It stimulates organized action for getting the job done. Therefore, it is also known as management in action. It is concerned with human factor in management and is the interpersonal aspect of management .It simply means communicating, leading, guiding and motivating people to get the jobs done to achieve goals efficiently and effectively. According to Koontz and Donnell-“Direction is the interpersonal aspect of managing by which subordinates are led to understand and contribute effectively to the attainment of enterprise objectives. Directing is concerned with stimulating members of the organization to undertake action consist with the plans.

CO-ORDINATING

In an organization, there may be large number of workers, all engaged with the object of doing particular job. Co-ordination involves the integration of the function of planning, organizing, directing and controlling. Managers must coordinate the functions, physical resources and personnel of their firm so that the organization goals can be achieved efficiently and effectively. As such, coordination represents an overall concern of all managers and is achieved when people, resources and functions blend together harmoniously to achieve quality results.

CONTROLLING
This function of the management is to see that other functions are being performed perfectly all right’s the controlling means to watch actual performance with the plans and to point out defective work. Through the establishment of controls, managers are able to compare the actual performance with the predetermined plan. In the event of unsatisfactory performance, manager takes the correction action.
Nepal Telecommunication Corporation was established in 2032 BS under the act of 2028 BS, as a governmental organisation. As a governmental organisation, this organisation was fully owned by the government and it served the country and the people until 2061 BS

Nepal Doorsanchar Company Limited (Nepal Telecom) was registered on 2060-10-22 under Company Act 2053 and the notice to this effect was published in Nepal Gazette Dated 26th Chaitra 2060, after dissolving then Nepal Telecommunication Corporation (NTC). However, the company name was officially effective from 1st Baisakh 2061(13th April 2004) and the general public knows it by the name of NEPAL TELECOM and its registered trademark.

Truly speaking, this is the semi-governmental organisation. This was originally the governmental organisation and it faced some functioning delay technical difficulties and in order to compete with the telecommunication practices this had to be established under the company act. Afterwards it became fully under the control of the executive committee and this had some degree of freedom from the political interference nominally. In some way it acquired some autonomy. But in practice, this is still under the influence of the government, as the shares are sold to the different ministries of the government of Nepal, there are no shares freely available to be sold in the open market.

This organisation has a capital of about 150 billion. Each share worth Rs. 100 and therefore in total 1.5 billions of shares. The half of the capital is shared by the Ministry Of Information and Communication. The rest being shared by Ministry Of Finance, Civilians and rest by the shareholders. However, not all the shares are freely available to be sold in the open market.

The company is under the company act 2063. The shareholders’ general assembly selects the executive committee members via the election procedure. Then the other working and managerial committees are divided. The overall organisation manpower has been up to 11th level, as shown in our tree diagram. The employees are selected as per” Karmachari Biniyamawali” where the working rules and regulations, Holidays, Funds etc related acts are prevalent.
The Salient Features of Company limited is:
• An association of individual for the purpose of carrying out business activities
• The capital is collected from selling the share to different person.
• The profit is distributed to the shareholders with proportion of their share
• The company is managed by board of director who are elected by the shareholders
• Association of persons
• Artificial legal person
• Distinct legal entity
• Limited liability
• Transferability of shares(Not Prevalent in NTCL)
• Perpetual existence
• Capital divided into shares
• Common seal of the organisation
• Separation of ownership and management
Merits
• Large financial Resources
• Limited liability
• Continuity
• Transferability of shares
• Public confidence
• Professional Management
Demerits
• Difficulty in formulation
• Lack of Personal interest
• Undue delay in Decision



MANAGEMENT MODEL OF NTCL

Management Model of NTCL is hierarchical that emphasizes responsibility and authority. Conflict is handled at the highest common level .The hierarchical view simplifies organizational life, explains why they follow others, provides a simple algorithm for work analysis and gives worker the rational for why they do what they do, is relatively stable, and allocates blame if things go wrong. To that extent this model is quite useful. Hierarchical system also tends to be more stable than the other type of management model from the stability point of view.

The NTCL is registered under company act and now it is a company legally. This resembles much closely with the joint stock company, however the shares are limited and therefore not free for the general public in the open market. The government has still enough hold in the number of the shares.



2.1 BOARD OF DIRECTORS:

The board of directors of NTCL consists of the following persons as interim provision until the general assembly takes place:
1. Chairperson: Mr. Shankar Prasad Koirala
(Secretary, Ministry of Information and Communication)
2. Member: Mr. Sugat Ratna Kansakar
(Managing Director, Nepal Telecom)
3. Member: Mr. Bimal Prasad Wagle
(Joint Secretary, Ministry of Finance)
4. Member: Mr. Bhesh Raj Sharma
(Joint secretary, Ministry of Law Justice and Parliamentary Affairs)
5. Member: Mr. Bhakta Raj Joshi
(Joint Secretary, Ministry of Information and Communication)
6. Member: Mr. Nandan Hari Sharma
(Executive Director, Citizen Investment Trust)
7. Member: Mr. Kumar Jung Karki
(Buisness Officer, Nepal Telecom)
8. Member: Mr. Hari Karmacharya
(Deputy Managing Director, Nepal Telecom)



Fig: the tree level diagram of Board of Directors of Nepal Telecom


2.2 EXISTING ORGANISATION CHART OF NEPAL TELECOM



The board of directors is the supreme power of Nepal Telecom. Then managing director is at the second level in the tree diagram. Under the managing director there are seventeen deputy managing directors. They are
1. DMD Planning and business: R.Halter

a. Department Head Transmission Planning Department: Sidha Pratap Bharati
b. Department Head Switching Planning Department: Kamini Rajbhandari
c. Department Head Access Network Planning Department: Narahari Das Joshi
d. Department Head Computer Department: Som Nath Bhattarai
e. Department Head Business Management Department: Surendra P. Thike


2. DMD Development: S.M. Sim

a. Department Head Development Department: Shyam Sunder Yadav
b. Department Head Civil Department: Madan Sharma
c. Department Head Material Management Department: Swoyambhu Bajracharya
d. Department Head Network Project Implementation: Vishnu P. Kasaju
e. Department Head Switching Project Implementation: Bhagat M.S.Pradhan
f. Department Head Optical Network Project Impt. Dept: Shiva Bhusan Lal

3. DMD Operation And Maitenance: M.K. Shakya

a. Department Head Operation And Maintenance: Jeevan R. Shakya
b. Department Head Switching Maintenance Dept: Subash Bajracharya
c. Department Head Power Dept.: Hari Gopal Shrestha
d. Department Head Transmission Department: Krishna P. Ghimire
e. Department Head Int’l Service:

4. DMD Finance: H. Karmacharya

a. Department Head Finance Department: Yadav R. Sharma
b. Department Head Financial Mgmt. And Budgeting: Pradip Upadhyaya
c. Department Head Revenue Department: Murari Raj Pandey
d. Department Head Billing Department: Neeraj Adhikari


5. DMD Administration: R. Karmacharya

a. Department Head HRD: Narayan Mahat
b. Department Head |Recruitment Committee Yagya B. Karki

6. DMD Internal Audit And Inspection: B.P. Bastola

a. Department Head Internal Audit And Inspection: Binay Chalise

7. DMD V.N. Goel

8. Director WTD\(Wireless Telephone Directorate): A.N. Singh

9. Director MSD(Mobile Service Directorate): L.R. Sharma

10. Director TTC( Telecom Training Center): B.R. Pokharel

11. Director RSD(Rural Service Directorate): H.K. Bhattarai

12. Director KRD(Kathmandu Regional Directorate,Sundhara): L.K. Shrestha

13. Director ERD(Eastern Regional Directorate, Biratnagar): K.L. Gupta

14. Director CRD(Central Regional Directorate, Birgunj): A.R. Bhattarai

15. Director WRD(Western Regional Directorate, Bhairahawa): A.P. Shrestha

16. Director MWRD(Mid-Western Regional Directorate, Nepalgunj): D.N. Yadav

17. Director FWRD(Far-Western Regional Directorate, Dhangadi): S.P.S. Adhikari














Fig: Existing organisation Chart of NTCL

Nepal Telecom is line organisation. The power distribution is hierarchical one. There are different 11 level of office personnel in NTCL. The top level is the board of directors. Then the managing director of NTCL is in the second top level. There are seven deputy managing directors and the rest nine are the directorate of different regions as specified by the NTCL. Under the deputy managing director there are departmental heads and under the departmental heads are the concerned high medium and low power level manpower. This is shown in the tree diagrams.


2.2POLICY AND EXECUTIVE GROUP

Policy and Executive group of NTCL consists of the Board of Directors (Seven Members and one chief) selected from the general assembly of the shareholders. They are concerned with the determination of overall objectives, policies establishing the long term planning and framework to carry out the activities of an organization.


2.3ADMINISTRATIVE AND FUNCTIONAL GROUP
There are different Managing directors for different region of developments such as ERD, WRD, FWRD etc. There are managing Directors of the concerned branches of NTCL and there are different departments such as Marketing, Finance, Materral Management, Swithching , Manpower Management, Account etc and the concerned departmental chiefs, the persons acting under them. This constitutes the administrative and the functional group of NTCL.

2.4 THE PREVAILING BRANCHES OF NTCL
Nepal Telecom has reach in almost all districts of Nepal. For providing the quality of service and to extend the organizational objectives come into practical as well as to cope up with the desired customer response, there are many branches of Nepal telecom. This can be well understood with the help of the following chart:













2.5 OFFICE PERSONNELS
There are different levels of office personnel in NTCL. Their selection procedure is fare and the advertisement for the post is published in the daily magazines. “Karmachari Bharna Samiti “has the sole responsibility of selecting the employee as per the Karmachari Biniyamawali”. No other authority to interfere with its business like “LOKSEWA AYOG” which takes the responsibility of selecting the candidates as per the written test, interviewing and experience etc for the other governmental organisation in Nepal. There are in total 11 levels of office personnel working in NTCL starting from the guard and sweepers to the board of directors in the hierarchy.

The salary scale is as per the governmental scale. Asked about the salary structure, we were not provided with the exact salaries. For an engineer, there is salary of about 20000 including the DA, allowances and bonus. This also depends upon the experience and seniority. Therefore the salary structure type is Rate Range salary for the staffs.

To fight for the right of the office personnel, there is an association of workers in NTCL for collective bargaining purpose. The working committee is selected from the general assembly of the shareholders and all the departments are under the control of the working committee. The working committee is free from the governmental interferences. Nowadays it has the sole responsibility of lunching new ideas and implement the new technology and time delay is reduced wherefrom.
There are different kinds of welfare and funds for the welfare of the employees after they retire. This is initiated by the staffs themselves which is somewhat similar to “Sanchaya Kosh “ for the governmental officials.
There are following types of office personnel:
1. Swikrit Darbandi ( Adhikrit Level , and Assistant Level which may be Temporary as well Permanent).
2. Permanent Employee (Adhikrit and Sahayak level)
3. Temporary Employee (With or Without Darbandi)
The detail of office personnel and their comparative study is presented in the following table:
erial No Particulars Level of the post 2061Asadh 2062 Asadh 2063 Asadh 2063 Poush
1 swikrit darbandi Adhikrit Level 988 998 1116 1185
(Including temporary) Sahayak Level 4773 4761 4979 5799
Total 5761 5759 6095 6984

2 Permanent Employee Adhikrit Level 759 774 789 821
Sahayak Level 3572 3568 3471 3388
Total 4331 4342 4260 4209

3 Temporary Employee Adhikrit Level 26 26 26 25
(With Darbandi) Sahayak Level 174 174 204 204
Level 1 44 44 44 44
Total 244 244 274 273

4 Without Darbandi Adhikrit Level 0 0 1 1
Sahayak Level 166 166 208 209
Level 1 990 990 872 872
Total 1156 1156 1081 1082

5 Total Working Employee Number 5731 5742 5615 5564

6 Central Level Departments No. 16 13 13 12

7 Project Implementation and
Local Departments Number 7 10 10 10

8 Central Level Directorate Number 2 3 3 3

9 Training Centers Number 1 1 1 1

10 Regional Directorate Number 6 6 6 6

11 Total Number of Accoun ting
Sections 48 48 48 48

12 Total Numbers of Telecom
Offices 187 196 204 218

13 Total PSTN Capacity 478324 552057 602252 627710

14 PSTN Line in Execution 408417 453475 485997 497062

15 Total Mobile Subscribers 178544 227316 622737 690369

16 C-Phone Sky Phone 0 0 23579 74120

17 E-mail Internet 3384 5989 8490 9362

18 All varieties of customer number 590345 686780 1140803 1270913

19 Employee per thousand customer 9.7 8.36 4.92 2.28

















2.6 SERVICES OFFERED BY NTCL
Telecom Services
• Local calls
• Domestic Telex
• Local leased lines
• National Trunk Calls
• International Trunk Calls
• International Telegram
• International Telex
• Operator Assisted International Telephone
• Packet Switching Data Communication
• Integrated Services Digital Network
Intelligent Network Services
• PCC Easy Call Service
• AFS Service
Mobile Services
• Post Paid
• Pre Paid
• Roaming (incoming and outgoing)
• SMS
EMAIL
• Yearly Email Package
INTERNET
1. Dial up Internet Access
2. PSTN Dial Up
• Fixed Hour Package
• Night Surfing Package
• Fixed Hour/Month Package
• Unlimited Single User Package
• PSTN Bills on the Internet
• Post Paid Mobile Bills
• Telephone Inquiry

3. ISDN Dial Up
4. Leased Line Connectivity
WEB SMS


Prepaid Calling Card (PCC or Easy Call)
• Access Code 1650
• Call charges not billed on the phone used
• Online Billing
• Online Balance Query and validity Query
• User can change PIN Code
• Ten frequently dialed numbers can be sent for abbreviated Dialing
• Language selection in English or Nepali
• Same Call Charges as PSTN Call rates
Advanced Free-Phone Service (AFS):
• Popularly known as Toll Free service worldwide.
• Reverse charging (Called party is charged instead of calling party)
• Targetted for Big Corporate Houses, Business institutions NGOs , INGOs, Banks, Departmental Stores, Airlines, Hostels etc

PSTN Credit Limit Service
• Access Code 1680
• Online Billing
• Balance Query and Validity Query
• User can change, Activate, or Deactivate PIN Code
• Language Selection on User’s Choice
• 10 Frequently dialed numbers can be set for abbreviated Dialing
• Tariff same as NT’s PSTN call rates
• Management function code 1681
Home Country Direct Service (HCD)
• Instant Access
• Online Billing
• Good Quality
• Calling Nepal from Abroad
• User friendly language in English and Nepali
• Balance Query

Voice Mail Service (VMS)
• Can be used by dialing Access Code from any Phone
• Message can be stored in the absence of the called party in voice mail Box.
• A kind of value added telecom service
• Can be accessed from any PSTN phone at any time
Interactive Voice Response Technology (IVR Technology)
• Established since 2004
• Enquiry Service (SLC Result Enquiry)
• Doesn’t require human presence at the server site
• Future extension of this service will be to Query Monthly Bill and Total Bill Amounts, Balance Enquiry in Banks and Credit Card Companies etc

C-Phone & Sky Phone Prepaid Services
• Local Domestic and International calling service
• Calling line identification , presentation service
• Short Message Service(SMS)
• Three Party Conference Call Service
• Call Forwarding Service
• Data Service with maximum speed of 153.6 Kbps service
• Voice mail Box Service

FOTHCOMING SERVICES OF NTCL IN NEAR FUTURE

General Packet Radio Service (GPRS):

• Advanced, feature-rich data services.
• Color Internet Browsing.
• E-mail on the move
• Powerful Visual Communications
• Location based Services
Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS)
• Text
• Picture
• Audio
• Video
• Combinations of the above

Cell and Time Discount (CTD)
• Special service to Prepaid subscribers
• Specific time
• Certain locations
Mobile Virtual Private Network (MVPN)
• Possibility to create closed user groups
• Options of lower call charges within the group
• Integral service for companies that have to communicate between multiple sites
• Available for NT’s Post paid mobile customers

Unstructured Supplementary Service Data (USSD)
• Prepaid roaming or mobile chatting
• Prepaid Balance Query, Prepaid Recharge and Prepaid Balance Transfer

Caller Ring Back Tone (CRBT)
• Selection of the ring back tones that can be listened to by their clllers
• An innovative way to differentiate and express personality
• Favorite song clips or sounds, clips, jingle or phrase

2.7 REVENUE OF NEPAL TELECOM

Nepal Telecom has been established with a mission that is "As a progressive, customer spirited and consumer responsive entity is committed to provide nation wide reliable telecommunication services to serve as an impetus to the social, political and economic development of the country." As mentioned in the mission statement for providing reliable telecom services, Nepal Telecom obviously needs sources of funds which in its case are generated mainly through charging for the services rendered. The tariff and charges for telecom services are approved by the regulatory authority, Nepal Telecommunication Authority. Due to the continuous growth of telecommunication sector in Nepal, traffic and customer's support, Nepal Telecom has been able to generate revenues which are increasing year by year. Nepal Telecom's operating Revenue of last few years have been presented below.



Here we can see how the revenue of Nepal Telecom has risen. Growth rate of financial year 2059/60 with respect to financial year 2058/59 is 17%. Similarly growth rate of financial year 2060/61 with respect to financial year 2059/60 is 15%. From the data presented above and as per growth rate prior to financial year 2058/ 59 it is estimated that annual growth generally in Nepal Telecom's case is around 10 to 15 %. But the contrast has been observed in financial year 2061/62 where growth rate of revenue for the year with respect to financial year 2060/61 was mere 3%. And the main cause was not due to performance of Nepal Telecom but as a result of closure of GSM Prepaid lines for almost more than six months. From the table presented above it is evident that revenue for financial year 2062/63 is crossing Rs. 10 Billion Nepalese rupees which means growth rate of financial year 2062/63 with respect to financial year 2061/62 is almost 20%(Un audited) which is far more convincing.(Note: Others section includes revenue amount of OYT, Installation etc., miscellaneous revenue of Mobile and CDMA, revenue from Leased Circuits, Telex, Telegraph, pay phone, Prepaid calling card etc. are also included.)

From source wise revenue table, it is clear that revenue from local calls is growing year by year. There
are legitimate reasons for the growth like growth in number of telephone lines, addition of value added
services having positive impact on local calls revenue. In recent times, substantial increase in successful calls from PSTN to Mobile and these calls being slightly costlier than the PSTN to PSTN calls have also fuelled up the local revenue. Revenue from STD calls is showing the linear growth but the heartening fact is in spite of continuous reduction in STD prices, STD Revenue is showing growth. This will definitely be a positive sign to narrow the gap between the local and STD call charging. In case of ISD Calls, we can see that due to heavy reduction in ISD calls tariff on Ashadh 2059, revenue from ISD calls in financial year 2059/60 has dropped. But introduction of budget call and other customer oriented schemes, it is gaining momentum in recent years. The source area which always contributed significantly is Inter administration revenue. Growth of traffic terminated in Nepal through NT gateway has contributed well to the treasury of Nepal Telecom. Mobile services is one of the main revenue source of Nepal Telecom and thanks to the faith and support provided by customers towards GSM Prepaid service, Nepal Telecom will climb to new heights in days to come. Since CDMA service has been launched in financial year 2062/63 only, it has already started showing bright signals. We hope that in coming years, CDMA FWT Prepaid, Postpaid and CDMA Limited Mobility services would contribute well to the company's revenue. Now let's turn the focus on current financial year 2063/64 for which revenue has been forecasted as follows:



These revenues are forecasted taking into consideration the existing distributed telephone lines, Average Revenue per user, Line distribution forecast for next year. On this account most importantly for GSM Prepaid 300,000 Lines, FWT CDMA 88,115 Lines and CDMA Limited Mobility 60,000 Lines have been set as the distribution target for next year. If these targets are met along with other PSTN distribution targets we can hope that the budgeted revenue could be achieved or may be even better. Finally in days to come, there would be enough threats and challenges before Nepal Telecom which consequently could have an effect upon Nepal Telecom's Revenue. Private Operators will try to
increase their subscriber base in Fixed, CDMA Limited Mobility and GSM segments. International calls termination to Nepal Telecom's network through UTL gateway and may be other operators venturing into this segment would try to pose threats to Nepal Telecom's Inter administration revenue. Carrier Access Code (CAC) for international calls is another area which needs to be addressed well from Nepal Telecom's point of view. But with the strengths of infrastructure and other resources coupled with the faith and support provided by its customers, Nepal Telecom would certainly live up to the opportunities and hence its vision" To remain a dominant player in telecommunication sector in the country while also extending reliable and cost effective services to all".


























MOBILE SERVICES:


How a cellular Telephone Call is made?
When a cellular phone is turned on, but it is not yet engaged in a call, it first scans the group of forward channels to determine the one with the strongest signal, and then monitors that control channel until the signal drops below a usable level. At this point, it again scans the control channels in search of the strongest base station signal. For each cellular system, the control channels are defined and standardized over the entire geographic area covered and typically make up about 5% of the total number of channels available in the system.
Since the control channels are standardized and are identical throughout different markets within the country or continent, every phone scans the same channels while idle. When a telephone call is placed to a mobile user, the MSC dispatches the request to all base stations in the cellular system. The mobile identification number (MIN), which is the subscriber’s telephone number, it is then broadcast as a paging message over all of the forward control channels throughout the cellular system. The mobile receives the paging message sent by the base station which it monitors and corresponds by identifying itself over the reverse control channel. The base station relays the acknowledgment sent by the mobile and informs the MSC of the handshake. Then the MSC instructs the base station to move the call to an unused voice channel within the cell. At this point, the base station signals the mobile to change frequencies to an unused forward and reverse voice channel pair, at which point another data message (called an alert) is transmitted over the forward voice channel to instruct the mobile telephone to ring, thereby instructing the mobile user to answer the phone.
Once a call is in progress, the MSC adjusts the transmitted power of the mobile and changes the channel of the mobile unit and base stations in order to maintain call quality as the subscriber moves in and out of range of each base station. This is called handoff. Special control signaling is applied to the voice channels so that the mobile unit may be controlled by the base station and the MSC while a call id in progress.
When a mobile originates a call, a call initiation request is sent on the reverse control channel. With this request the mobile unit transmits its telephone number (MIN), electronic serial number (ESN), and the4 telephone number of the called party. The mobile also transmits a station class mark (SCM) which indicates what the maximum transmitter power level is for the particular user. The cell base station receives this data and sends it to the MSC. The MSC validates the request, makes connection to the called party through the PSTN, and instructs the base station land mobile user to move to an unused forward and reverse voice channel pair to allow the conversation to begin.
All cellular systems provide a service called roaming. This allows subscribers to operate in service areas other than the one form which service is subscribed. When a mobile enters a city or geographic area that is different from its home service area, it is registered as a roamer in the now service area. This is accomplished over the FCC, since each roamer is camped on to an FCC at all times. Every several minutes, the MSC uses an global command over each FCC in the system, asking for all mobiles which are previously unregistered to report their MIN an SESN over the RCC, New unregistered mobiles in the system periodically report back their subscriber information upon receiving the registration request, and the MSC then use the MIN\ESN data to request billing status from the home location register (HLR) for each roaming mobile. If a particular roamer has roaming authorization for billing purposed, the MSC registers the subscriber as a valid roamer, Once registered, roaming mobiles are allowed to receive and palace calls from that area, and billing is routed automatically to the subscribers home service provide

3. WIRELESS COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY
The term mobile has historically been used to classify any radio channel that could be moved during operation. The term mobile is used to describe a radio terminal that is attached to a high speed mobile platforms(for example ,a cellular telephone in a fast moving vehicle)where as the term portable describes a radio terminal that can be hand held and used by someone at walking speed ( For example - Walky-Talky). The term subscriber is often used to describe a mobile or portable user because in most mobile communication systems, each user pays a subscription fee to use the system, and each user’s communication device is called a subscriber unit. In general, the collective group of users in a wireless system is called users or mobiles, even though many of the users may actually use portable terminals. The mobiles communicate to fixed base stations which are connected to a commercial power source and a fixed backbone network.
Mobile radio transmission systems may be classified as simplex, half duplex or full duplex. In simplex systems, communication is possible in only one direction. Paging systems, in which messages are received but not acknowledged, are simplex systems. Half Duplex radio systems allow two way communications, but use the same radio channel for both transmission and reception. This means that at any given time, a user can only transmit or receive information. Constraints like push to talk and release to listen are fundamental feature of half duplex systems. Full duplex systems on the other hand , allow simultaneous radio transmission and reception between a subscriber and a base station by providing two simultaneous but separate channels(FDD) or adjacent time slots a single radio channel(TDD) for communication to and from the user.
Frequency division duplexing (FDD) provides simultaneous radio transmission channels for the subscriber and the base station, so that they both may constantly transmit while simultaneously receiving signals from one another. At the base station separate “transmit and receive antennas” are used to accommodate the two separate channels. At the reception from the base station and a device called duplexer is used inside the subscriber unit to enables the same antennas to be used for simultaneous transmission and reception. To facilitate FDD it is necessary to separate the “transmit and receive” frequencies by about five percent of the nominal RF frequency, so that the duplexer can provide sufficient isolation while being inexpensively manufactured.
In FDD, a pair of simplex channels with a fixed and known frequency separation is used to define a specific radio channel in the system. The channel used to convey traffic to the mobile user from a base station is called the forward channel, while the channel used to carry traffic from the mobile user to a base station is called the reverse channel,( the separation of reverse channel being 45MHz below than the forward channel). FDD is used exclusively in analog mobile radio systems. Full duplex and half duplex systems use transceivers for radio communication.
Time division duplexing (TDD) uses the fact that it is possible to share a single radio channel in time, so that a portion of the time is used to transmit from the base station to the mobile, and the remaining time is used to transmit from the mobile to the base station. If the data transmission rate in the channel is much greater than the end user’s data rate, it is possible to store information bursts and provide the appearance of full duplex operation to a user, even though there are not two simultaneous radio transmissions ant any instant. TDD is only possible with digital transmission formats and digital modulation, and is very sensitive to timing. It is for this reason that TDD has only recently been used and only for indoor or small area wireless applications where the physical coverage distances (and thus propagation time delay is much smaller than the much more area in cellular telephone).

BASICS OF CELLULAR TECHNOLOGY AND USE OF RADIO SPECTRUM
Mobile operators use radio spectrum to provide their services. Spectrum is generally considered a scarce resource, and has been allocated as such. It has traditionally been shared by a number of industries, including broadcasting, mobile communications and the military. At the World Radio Conference (WRC) in 1993, spectrum allocations for 2G mobile were agreed based on expected demand growth at the time. At WRC-2000the resolutions of the WRC expanded significantly the spectrum capacity to be used for 3G, by allowing the use of current 2G spectrum blocks for 3G technology and allocating 3G spectrum to an upper limit of 3GHz.
Before the advent of cellular technology, capacity was enhanced through a division of frequencies, and the resulting addition of available channels. However, this reduced the total bandwidth available to each user, affecting the quality of service. Cellular technology allowed for the division of geographical areas, rather than frequencies, leading to a more efficient use of the radio spectrum. This geographical re-use of radio channels is knows as “frequency reuse”.
In a cellular network, cells are generally organized in groups of seven to form a cluster. There is a “cell site” or “ base station” at the centre of each cell, which houses the transmitter/receiver antennae and switching equipment. The size of a cell depends on the density of subscribers in an area: for instance, in a densely populated area, the capacity of the network can be improved by reducing the size of a cell or by adding more overlapping cells. This increases the number of channels available without increasing the actual number of frequencies being used. All base stations of each cell are connected to a central point, called the Mobile Switching Office (MSO), either by fixed lines or microwave. The MSO is generally connected to the PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network):













Cellular technology allows the “hand-off” of subscribers from one cell to another as they travel around. This is the key feature which allows the mobility of users. A computer constantly tracks mobile subscribers of units within a cell, and when a user reaches the border of a call, the computer automatically hands-off the call and the call is assigned a new channel in a different cell.

International roaming arrangements govern the subscriber’s ability to make and receive calls the home network’s coverage area.
Access Technologies
FDMA: Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) is the most common analog system. It is a technique whereby spectrum is divided up into frequencies and then assigned to users. With FDMA, only one subscriber at any given time is assigned to a channel. The channel therefore is closed to other conversations until the initial call is finished, or until it is handed-off to a different channel. A “full-duplex” FDMA transmission requires two channels, one for transmitting and the other for receiving. FDMA has been used for first generation analog systems.
TDMA: Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) improves spectrum capacity by splitting each frequency into time slots. TDMA allows each user to access the entire radio frequency channel for the short period of a call. Other users share this same frequency channel at different time slots. The base station continually switches from user to user on the channel. TDMA is the dominant technology for the second generation mobile cellular networks.
CDMA: Code Division Multiple Accesses is based on “spread” spectrum technology. Since it is suitable for encrypted transmissions, it has long been used for military purposes. CDMA increases spectrum capacity by allowing all users to occupy all channels at the same time. Transmissions are spread over the whole radio band, and each voice or data call are assigned a unique code to differentiate from the other calls carried over the same spectrum. CDMA allows for a “ soft hand-off” , which means that terminals can communicate with several base stations at the same time. The dominant radio interface for third-generation mobile, or IMT-2000will be a wideband version of CDMA with three modes (IMT-DS, IMT-MC and IMT-TC).


1.2. HISTORY OF MOBILE COMMUNICATION
Wireless Communication Systems is believed to be first developed by Marconi, in 1897, to provide continuous contact with the ships sailing the English channel. Historically the growth in the mobile communication field has come slowly, to technological improvements. Bell Laboratories developed the cellular concept in the 1960s and 1970s [Nob62],[Mac79] and [You79]. With the development of highly reliable, miniature, solid state radio frequency hardware in the 1970s, the wireless communications era was born. The recent exponential growth in cellular radio and personal communication systems throughout the world is directly attributable to new and portable communication systems will be tend more closely to radio spectrum allocations and regulatory decisions which affect or support new or extended services , as well as to consumer needs and technology advances in the signal processing ,access and network areas.

How Mobile Communication Developed?
•1680 Newton first suggested concept of spectrum but for the visible light only.
•1831 Faraday demonstrated that light, electricity and magnetism are related.
•1864 Maxwell’s Equations proved spectrum includes much more than light.
•1888 Henrich Hertz, German physicist gave lab demo of existence of electromagnetic wave at radio frequencies.
•1890s First successful demos of radio transmission.
•1895 Guglielmo Marconi demonstrated a wireless radio telegraph over a 3-km path near his home in Italy.
•1897 The British fund Marconi’s development of reliable radio telegraphy over ranges of 100 Km.
•1902 Marconi’s successful trans-Atlantic demonstration.
•1902 Nathan stubblefield demonstrates voice over radio.
•1906 Lee De Forest invented “audion”, triode vacuum tube.
•1914 Radio became valuable military tool in World War I.
•1920s Radio used for commercial broadcasting.
•1940s First application of RADAR English detection of incoming German planes during World War II.
•1950s First public marriage of radio and telephony: MTS, Mobile Telephone System developed.
•1961 Transistor developed; a portable radio was now practical.
•1970s Integrated circuit progress: MSI, LSI, LSI, ASICs.
•79-83 AMPS cellular demo, commercial systems developed.
•1970s FCC (Federal communications Commission) allocated 40MHz of spectrum in 800 MHz range for public mobile telephony.
•1987 FCC allocated an additional 10MHz of “expanded Spectrum”.
•1990 All MSAs and RSAs had competing licences granted and at least one system operating.
•1990s Additional technologies were developed for cellular TDMA (IS 54, 55, 56, IS136, also GSM in Europe or worldwide) and CDMA (IS 95)
•1991s First US Digital Cellular (USDC) System hardware was installed in major US cities.

•The IS 54 and IS 136 Interim Standards allowed cellular operators to replace gracefully some single user analog channels with digital channels which support three users in the same 30 KHz bandwidth [EIA90].Thus the capacity improvement offered by USDC is three times that of AMPS, because digital of DPFSK in digital modulation, speech coding and TDMA in place of analog FM and FDMA.

•A cellular system based on code division multiple access (CDMA) was developed by Qualcomm Inc and standardized by the Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) as an interim standard (IS 95)



3.1 HISTORY OF COMMUNICATION IN NEPAL

Nepal telecom underwent through a number of subsequent stages before it finally came to the present status. The following are the milestones in the development of this company.
1. 1913: Establishment of first telephone lines in Kathmandu
2. 1994: Establishment of Open Wire Trunk Link from Kathmandu to Raxaul (India)
3. 1935: Installation of 25 lines automatic exchange in Palace
4. 1936: Installation of Open Wire Trunk line from Kathmandu to Dhankuta
5. 1950: Establishment of Telegram Service
6. 1950: Establishment of CB telephone exchange (100 lines ) in Kathmandu
7. 1951: Installation of Open Wire Trunk line from Kathmandu to Palpa
8. 1955: Distribution of telephone line to general public
9. 1957: Registered as an ITU State member on 5th December
10. 1962: First Public Telephone Exchange in Kathmandu (300 lines)
11. 1964: Beginning of International Telecommunications Service using HF Radio to India and Pakistan
12. 1965: First Automatic exchange in Nepal (1000 lines)
13. 1974: Microwave transmission links establishment for internal trunk
14. 1982: Establishment of Standard “B” Type Earth Station for international circuits
15. 1983: Establishment of SPC telex exchange
16. 1984: Reliable Rural Telecom Service (JICA)
17. 1987: Commencement of ISD service
18. 1995: Installation of Optical Fiber Network
19. 1996:
a. Conversion of all Transmission link to Digital transmission link
b. Automation of the entire telephone network
c. Independent Int. Gateway Exchange established
d. Introduction to VSAT services

20. 1997: Digital Link with DOT India through Optical Fiber in Birgunj-Raxaul
21. 1999: GSM Mobile Service
2000: Internet Service
22. 2001: Payphone Service
23. 2002: East West Highway Optical Fiber Project
24. 2003: GSM Prepaid Service
25. 2004:
a. Transformation to NEPAL TELECOM (Nepal Doorsanchar Company Limited)
b. Intelligent Network Services
26. 2005:
a. Access Network Services
b. Outsourcing of Enquiry Services (197)
c. Soft launch of CDMA
27. 2006:
a. PSTN Credit Limit Service-PCL Service (Intelligent Network Services)
b. Home Country Direct Service –NepalDirect (Intelligent Network Service)
c. MCC (198) Complain Registration via IVR in Kathmandu Valley
d. CDMA limited mobile service in Kathmandu Valley





3.2 SOME MODELS OF COMMUNICATION IN NEPAL

GSM TECHNOLOGY:

Brief History:
Mobile communication has been the foremost fast growing technology of 21st century which has been one of the fundamental needs of people among food, shelter and clothes. It has been only 25 years that full duplex analog mobile service introduced first time in world while commercial launch of digital mobile service has not become more than 14 years. After success of analog cellular, many incompatible mobile systems were developed in Europe, Japan and North America. A conference held in 1982 set up a committee known as Group Special Mobile(GSM), later it was known as Global System for Mobile Communication, which developed GSM standards and finally in 1992 first digital GSM system was launched in Europe. Now GSM is the world’s largest mobile system which covers almost 82 percent of mobile subscribers.
Despite the fact that the mobile services in Nepal is younger than Europe, Nepal Telecom, the pioneer mobile operator, launched GSM mobile service first time in May 1999. Initially, Nepal Telecom installed 10 thousands lines network from European vendor NORTEL. To meet the customers’ demand, Nepal Telecom installed 50 thousands lines HUAWEI network which was later expanded to 2.5 lakhs lines and again, it was expanded to 4.3 lakhs lines ZTE network in November 2005 beginning from Pokhara, Biratnagar and Birgunj from July 1999. Later on, Nepal Telecom expanded its services throughout the major cities and towns of Nepal by May 2003, and now altogether 277 base stations are distributed in 40 districts around the country. Namaste pre-paid service, which is the most popular mobile of Nepal, was started in Kathmandu, Pokhara, Birgunj and Biratnagar simultaneously from August 2003, and later the service is extended in almost all parts of country. Nepal Telecom has already installed and te4sted 3G mobile first time in Nepal.

Customer Growth:
From the beginning, customers had been showing a great interes ti in mobile service of Nepal Telecom. In every year, number of customers is increased by more than two folds. Nepal Telecom has strong pressure from public to fulfill the demand the Namaste pre paid mobile service all over Nepal. Nepal Telecom has the experience of 50 thousands lines distributions within three days of period. Still people have keen interest to have Nepal Telecom’s mobile service. From this scenario, one can easily predict that there are millions of potential costumers waiting for the service throughout the Nepal. Nevertheless, the customers have other options of choosing mobile service in many places, they prefer to stay in queue and wait until Nepal Telecom distributes Namaste mobile rather than choosing the others. But major are : wide coverage, largest domain, reasonable price, quality of service, no hidden cost and good-will from other services. Graph below illustrates the customer growth in each years and total number of customer since 1999.



Network quality in KTM:
Network quality depends upon the number of factors such as radio resources used, radio network planning, network equipments, transmission links, network congestion, landscape, equipment environment and faults clearance period. Some of the factors such as radio resources and landscape are limited and natural that can not be altered by any methods while others can be maintained by better network management. Radio frequency planning and optimization plays the vital role in GSM network quality. Quality of radio network is indicated by received signal level , carrier to interference ratio (C/I), bit error rate. Network performance can be measured from several performance indices from BSC statistics, some important indices are radio switch rate, traffic channel (TCH) service rate. The graph below illustrates the real scenario of network performance


future
In continued effort to meet the growing demand of mobile phones, Nepal Telecom is expanding the existing GSM network throughout the country massively. In the mean time, to avoid the traffic congestion within Kathmandu Valley, the installation work for the expansion of dual band equipments is nearing completion and the testing of the equipments are underway. Once this is completed the traffic congestion will be minimized. Since the service has started in 1997, this popularity has been growing continuously and has crossed 7 lakhs subscribers. Nepal Telecom is now trying it’s best to provide value added services under mobile service.
With the rise of the 3rd Generation (3G) mobiles communication technology, NT is preparing to launch WCDMA network within Kathmandu Valley. WCDMA has attracted lots of user and operators with its advanced technology and abundant services. WCDMA service shall be covered inside ring road area which included government offices, embassies, shopping centers, residential areas, business areas and roadside of the core area of KTM.
The WCDMA network consists of GGSN (GPRS Gateway Support Node), SGSN (Serving GSN), MGW (Media Gateway), CN (Core Network), RNC (Radio Network Controller) and NOD-B. There are total 8 NOD-B sites and 24 cells. The NOD-Bs is located in the following locations.
1. Pulchowk
2. Rastriya Banijya Bank ,Singhadurbar.
3. Kalikasthan
4. Hattisar
5. Newroad
6. Naxal
7. Kantipath
8. Maharajgunj

In current configuration, WCDMA network has capacity of 10,000 subscribers. In addition to services of 2.5G GSM network such as MMS (Multi Media Service), CRBT(Caller Ring Back Tone) etc. It has video call, high speed data service @360Kbps, Video-streaming, and Internet browsing @64Kbps, live TV telecast, Video Conference and Video Clip Transfer.


General Packet Radio Service (GPRS):
• Advanced, feature-rich data services.
• Color Internet Browsing.
• E-mail on the move
• Powerful Visual Communications
• Location based Services
Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS)
• Text
• Picture
• Audio
• Video
• Combinations of the above

Cell and Time Discount (CTD)
• Special service to Prepaid subscribers
• Specific time
• Certain locations
Mobile Virtual Private Network (MVPN)
• Possibility to create closed user groups
• Options of lower call charges within the group
• Integral service for companies that have to communicate between multiple sites
• Available for NT’s Post paid mobile customers

Unstructured Supplementary Service Data (USSD)
• Prepaid roaming or mobile chatting
• Prepaid Balance Query, Prepaid Recharge and Prepaid Balance Transfer
Caller Ring Back Tone (CRBT)
• Selection of the ring back tones that can be listened to by their clllers
• An innovative way to differentiate and express personality
• Favorite song clips or sounds, clips, jingle or phrase




CDMA TECHNOLOGY

CDMA is wide band technology in which the radio spectrum is dived in top carriers which are approximately 1.23 MHz wide.
The traffic channels are created by assigning each user a unique code within the carrier.
Each code or user is then layered and simultaneously transmitted over the entire carrier. One of the unique aspects of CDMA is that while there are certainly limits to the number of phone calls that can be handed by a carrier the number of different factors that the operators can control.

CDMA channels
CDMA channels are the physical units that are needed to transmit a conversation and operate the system.
The number of channels that are needed at each cell site depends upon a number of different factors including the amount of traffic, data, soft handoff’s and overhead channels that the system would need to support.
CDMA channels are comprised of logical channels which are detailed below.

Traffic channels
The traffic channel carries the actual phone call. That is the voice and control information between the subscriber and the base unit.

Overhead channels
Pilot channels: the pilot channel is used by the subscriber unit to obtain initial system synchronization and to distinguish cell sites. Every sector of every cell site has a unique pilot channel.
Sync channel: the sync channel provides the subscriber unit with network information related to cell site identification pilot transmit power and cell site PN offset.
PAGING CHANNELS: the paging channel provides communication from the base station to the subscriber unit .on this channel the base station can page the subscriber unit and it can call set up and traffic channels assignment information.
ACCESS CHANNEL: the access channel provides communication from the subscriber unit to the base station when subscriber unit is not using a traffic channel .the access channel is used for the call origination and also for response to pages orders and registration requests. The access channel is paired with a corresponding paging channel.
The main effort of this project will be to modernize the telecommunication network in Nepal. After the successful completion of the project NTC will have an advanced model telecommunication network based on wire less technology which will be added impetus to the existing voice as well as data service in the country.
The CDMA projects being one of the important elements of NT’s plan could therefore be considered as a viable project not only in financial terms but also from socio economic point view .the main effort of this project will be to develop the telecommunication network in Nepal.


Supplementary and value added services provided by CDMA

call forwarding
•Allows subscribers to forward call to another preset phone no. or to the subscriber voice mail box.
call waiting
Inform subscriber of new incoming call when his/her phone is busy. If received he/she can switch over the two calls.
do not disturb
If this service is activated the subscriber will reject all incoming calls.
Conference calls this service allows conversation among multiple subscribers both CDMA and non CDMA at the same time.
mobile access hunting
When there is an incoming call the system rings a no. of sets in the presets sequence until the subscriber’s answers with one. Maximum no. of sets in the sequence can be eight.
remote feature control
•Allows user to make some service operations on their set from any other available phones.
password call acceptance
•Allows subscriber to selectively accept calls. If this service is activated the system will require the calling subscriber to provide a password for the call connection.
selective call acceptance
•Allows subscriber to selectively accept calls from the list created by the subscriber and reject all other calls.
subscriber pin intercept
•When this is activated a specific call or service operation can be made only when the password is input.
subscriber pin accept
•When this service is activated the phone is locked for any out going calls or other service operation .only the deactivation operation of this service is possible.
call transfer
•When this service is activated and the subscriber is in a two party conversation one of the subscribers can transfer the call to a third party and disconnect him so that the other subscriber continues the conversation with the third subscriber.
voice mail service

The voice mail box can provide storage and retrieval of voice message as well as auxiliary funtions.the voice mailbox number corresponds to the CDMA subscriber no. itself .when the CDMA subscriber dials the VMS access no. he/she is guided by voice announcement. Any message left in the mailbox can only be drawn by the mailbox owner.

fax services
•The fax services are provided in specific fax enabled Fixed Wireless Terminal (FWT).This service has an interface to connect fax machine.

packet data service
•PDSN service provides high speed internet connection (up to 153.6Kbps) to users. However this rate is dynamic and can be slower depending on the traffic volume. To use PDSN, service with NT .To use PDSN, the phone is connected to the computer via serial cable.

About End Users CDMA Terminals
- Fixed Wireless Phone (FWP) for fixed users.
Except Fax service, users can have access to all other basic and value added services.
- Fixed Wireless terminal (FWT) with Fax Services for fixed users.
Including Fax service, users can have access to all other basic and value added services.
- Handheld Terminal (HHT) for Mobile Users.
Users can have access to basic and value added services.
- PCMCIA card (without RUIM) for Laptop Computer Users
Users can have access to data services only.
- RUIM card for Mobile Users
It can be used in standard (800MHz) CDMA2000 1x Handsets and PCMCIA card. All basic and value added services are available.








3.7 FUTURE TREND OF NTCL


In continued effort to meet the growing demand of mobile phones, Nepal Telecom is expanding the existing GSM network throughout the country massively. In the mean time, to avoid the traffic congestion within Kathmandu Valley, the installation work for the expansion of dual band equipments is nearing completion and the testing of the equipments are underway. Once this is completed the traffic congestion will be minimized. Since the service has started in 1997, this popularity has been growing continuously and has crossed 7 lakhs subscribers. Nepal Telecom is now trying it’s best to provide value added services under mobile service.
With the rise of the 3rd Generation (3G) mobiles communication technology, NT is preparing to launch WCDMA network within Kathmandu Valley. WCDMA has attracted lots of user and operators with its advanced technology and abundant services. WCDMA service shall be covered inside ring road area which included government offices, embassies, shopping centers, residential areas, business areas and roadside of the core area of KTM.
The WCDMA network consists of GGSN (GPRS Gateway Support Node), SGSN (Serving GSN), MGW (Media Gateway), CN (Core Network), RNC (Radio Network Controller) and NOD-B. There are total 8 NOD-B sites and 24 cells. The NOD-Bs is located in the following locations.
1. Pulchowk
2. Rastriya Banijya Bank ,Singhadurbar.
3. Kalikasthan
4. Hattisar
5. Newroad
6. Naxal
7. Kantipath
8. Maharajgunj

In current configuration, WCDMA network has capacity of 10,000 subscribers. In addition to services of 2.5G GSM network such as MMS (Multi Media Service), CRBT(Caller Ring Back Tone) etc. It has video call, high speed data service @360Kbps, Video-streaming, and Internet browsing @64Kbps, live TV telecast, Video Conference and Video Clip Transfer.

PSTN Switch Expansion:
To cater to the growing demands of basic telephone services in the country PSTN switch expansion work is in progress. Some parts of the expansion project under EWSD (Siemens) and JRACK (Alcatel) systems have been completed and brought into successful operation.

Under the EWSD system, the existing 10 host exchanges will be upgraded to Version 17. The present Operation and Maintenance Center will also be upgraded to NET MANAGER of the new version. Addition of 27K subscribers lines scattered in 10 host exchanges and their remote units also includes the phase- out of the equipment totaling to 14K lines. In addition, 1700 E1 trunks will be added and brought into service under this system.

The network expansion under JRACK system includes upgrade of the transit exchange and enhancing billing capabilities of some of the host exchanges that provide interconnection facilities to other operator. Addition of 24K subscriber lines and 1928E1 trunks will be accomplished under this system in few months. With the completion of this network expansion including enhancing capabilities of some of the switches used for interconnection purpose, it is expected that the current constraints to provide adequate interconnection facility to the new telecom operators will be solved.

Restoration of Damaged Telecommunications Infrastructure and Establishment of Communication Centers:

In response to the change in the political scenario of the country ,leading to ceasefire and peace process, a six member taskforce committee was formed under the supervision of Deputy Managing Director Mr. Madan Kaji Shrestha to carry out the restoration of the telecommunications infrastructure that was damaged in the decade long insurgency in the country. The restoration work was started from 5th June 2006. The completion of the restoration work will take some more time due to winter season and the extreme geographical location of the sites.
After the launching of the CDMA telephone services, most of the damaged MARTS stations have been replaced by CDMA Phones.

In the meantime, establishment of communication center at 7 main cantonments namely Illam, Sindhuli, Kavre, Palpa, Rolpa, Surkhet and Kailali and 21 sub-cantonments within the periphery of main cantonments have been done by NT.



LIMITATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS

Nepal Telecom Corporation Limited has undergone a sea change in the development. It has acquired much public faith in the field of communication. It has served the nation with all kind of informational services from PSTN to digital telephony up to now in CDMA prepaid mobile service is being launched in the second phase. It has established East West Optical Highway with the assistance of Indian government as the backbone network.
LIMITATIONS FACED BY NTCL
1. NTCL is not totally free from political and government interferences.
2. There is no perfect correlation between the subscribers demand and the organisation. The subscriber’s number is increasing but the capacity is limited. The subscribers face a great problem in getting the prepaid SIM card. The Black Marketting has been a problem.
3. Radio propagation in uneven landscape is unpredictable. It is very difficult to control the radio signals of the base stations at higher altitude, for example, signals of kakani and nagarkot are appeared everywhere inside the valley. In high altitude land, such as sitapakha, lubu, syoumbhu stup, the signals from many sites interfere with each other.
4. The CDMA service provided by the organisation are often been criticized for electronic malfunctioning and power problems with the set. The voice quality is also far less than expected.
5. The high officials are afraid of being updated with the new costly and quality equipments and technology because of their fear of being on charge of CIAA like Jaya Prakash Prasad Gupta(He was former Minister of Information and Communication)
6. The behavior of the staffs of NTCL is not dedicated to the customer service although the organisation has been transformed to be Company. This is because of the Old Habitual Mindset of the staffs.

SUGGESTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
1. There is no free distribution of shares in market. The no of shares that one organisation of ministry can purchase should be fixed.
2. The number of microcells should be increased in the sector where the quality of signal has degraded for mobile systems. The number of channels should be increased proportionately with the increasing number of the subscribers.
3. The prepaid SIM Card distribution should be more effective. Priority should be given to distributing for different families rather than distributing for more than one member in the same family. The black marketing can be controlled by making compulsion of renewal after every year showing the related documents.
4. Most trusted and reliable company product should be used to purchase the CDMA sets or alternatively better technology should be applied for voice quality. The no of channels should also be made greater. The SKY PHONE should be extended beyond the valley if possible.
5. The true evaluation of a technology and the personnel involved in the better performance of the technology should be rewarded rather than discouraging them.
6. Complete brainstorming of the staffs for providing the organizational service to the customer is most essential.















REFERENCES
1. Nepal Telecom Smarica 2063
2. Mr. Prakash Sigdel (Manpower Administration NTCL)
3. Wireless Communications Principles and Practices, Second Eddition
• Theodore s. Rappaport
4. www.ntc.net.np

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