In Nepal, operating any form of telecommunication service dates back to 94 years in B.S. 1970. But formally telecom service was provided mainly after the establishment of MOHAN AKASHWANI in B.S. 2005.Later as per the plan formulated in First National Five year plan (2012-2017); Telecommunication Department was established in B.S.2016.
To modernize the telecommunications services and to expand the services, during third five-year plan (2023-2028), Telecommunication Department was converted into Telecommunications Development Board in B.S.2026. After the enactment of Communications Corporation Act 2028, it was formally established as fully owned Government Corporation called Nepal Telecommunications Corporation in B.S. 2032 for the purpose of providing telecommunications services to Nepalese People.
After serving the nation for 29 years with great pride and a sense of accomplishment, Nepal Telecommunication Corporation was transformed into Nepal Doorsanchar Company Limited from Baisakh 1, 2061. Nepal Doorsanchar company Limited is a company registered under the companies Act 2053. However the company is known to the general public by the brand name Nepal Telecom as registered trademark.
Nepal Telecom has always put its endeavors in providing its valued customers a quality service since its inception. To achieve this goal, technologies best meeting the interest of its customers has always been selected. The nationwide reach of the organization, from urban areas to the economically non- viable most remote locations, is the result of all these efforts that makes this organization different from others.
GSM MOBILE COMMUNICATION SYSTEM
Mobile communication has been the foremost fast growing technology of 21st century which has been one of the fundamental needs of people among food, shelter and clothes. It has been only 25 years that full duplex analog mobile service introduced first time in world while commercial launch of digital mobile service has not become more than 14 years. After success of analog cellular, many incompatible mobile systems were developed in Europe, Japan and North America.
A conference held in 1982 set up a committee known as Group Special Mobile(GSM), later it was known as Global System for Mobile Communication, which developed GSM standards and finally in 1992 first digital GSM system was launched in Europe. Now GSM is the world’s largest mobile system which covers almost 82 percent of mobile subscribers.
Despite the fact that the mobile services in Nepal is younger than Europe, Nepal Telecom, the pioneer mobile operator, launched GSM mobile service first time in May 1999. Initially, Nepal Telecom installed 10 thousands lines network from European vendor NORTEL. To meet the customers’ demand, Nepal Telecom installed 50 thousands lines HUAWEI network which was later expanded to 2.5 lakhs lines and again, it was expanded to 4.3 lakhs lines ZTE network in November 2005 beginning from Pokhara, Biratnagar and Birgunj from July 1999. Later on, Nepal Telecom expanded its services throughout the major cities and towns of Nepal by May 2003, and now altogether 277 base stations are distributed in 40 districts around the country. Namaste pre-paid service, which is the most popular mobile of Nepal, was started in Kathmandu, Pokhara, Birgunj and Biratnagar simultaneously from August 2003, and later the service is extended in almost all parts of country. Nepal Telecom has already installed and te4sted 3G mobile first time in Nepal.
INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIZATION
Organization is social entities in which two or more people work interdependently through deliberately structured patterns of interaction to accomplish a set of goals. It is a form of human association or coordination of man, machine and materials. People work in the organization under the organizations rules and regulations. Nepal Telecom is not out of this definition.
VISION AND MISSION OF NEPAL TELECOM
Each and every organization is established with certain aim and objective. Whatever the organization, their vision is to reach up to people with their services and facility as easily as possible.
"Vision of Nepal Telecom is to remain a dominant player in telecommunication sector in the Country while also extending reliable and cost effective services to all"
Mission of Nepal Telecom, as stated is, "Nepal Telecom as a progressive, customer spirited and consumer responsive Entity is committed to provide nation-wide reliable telecommunication service to serve as an impetus to the social, political and economic development of the Country"
ORGANIZATIONAL GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
Any organization is a coordination of man, machine and materials. Organization is a process of identifying and grouping work to be performed for the purpose of enabling people to work. People join there to fulfill their common purpose. Because they believe that their personal goals can be achieved more effectively in concern with others than by acting alone.
Like every organization Nepal Telecom has also specific goals. The major goals and objectives of Nepal Telecom are:
a) to provide cost effective telecommunication services to every nook and corner of country
b) to have technologies best meeting the interest of its customers
c) the nationwide reach of the organization, from urban areas to the economically non- viable most remote locations
d) to assist in the socio-economic development of the urban as well as rural areas, as telecommunications is one of the most important infrastructures required for development
IDENTIFICATION OF PROBLEM
EFFECTIVENESS IN SERVICES OF GSM MOBILE COMMUNICATION
No organizations will cent percent effective and efficient. Nepal Telecom can not refrain from this universal truth. It has its own pros and cons. Though it is the most profit making organization, it is unable to service the GSM subscriber as they wish to have. It may due to lots of reason, may be technical, financial etc underlying in the organization. This is the issue of our case study.
DEVELOPING THE HYPOTHESIS
GLOBAL SYSTEM FOR MOBILE (GSM) TECHNOLOGY
TECHNICAL DETAILS OF GSM SYSTEM
GSM is a cellular network, which means that mobile phones connect to it by searching for cells in the immediate vicinity. GSM differs from first generation wireless systems in that it uses digital technology and time division multiple access transmission methods.
Voice is digitally encoded via a unique encoder, which emulates the characteristics of human speech. This method of transmission permits a very efficient data rate/information content ratio. GSM networks operate in four different frequency ranges. Most GSM networks operate in the 900 MHz or 1800 MHz bands. Some countries in the Americas (including Canada and the United States) use the 850 MHz and 1900 MHz bands because the 900 and 1800 MHz frequency bands were already allocated.
• In the 900 MHz band the uplink frequency band is 890–915 MHz, and the downlink frequency band is 935–960 MHz.
• This 25 MHz bandwidth is subdivided into 124 carrier frequency channels, each spaced 200 kHz apart. Time division multiplexing is used to allow eight full-rate or sixteen half-rate speech channels per radio frequency channel.
• There are eight radio timeslots (giving eight burst periods) grouped into what is called a TDMA frame. Half rate channels use alternate frames in the same timeslot. The channel data rate is 270.833 kbit/s, and the frame duration is 4.615 ms.
• The transmission power in the handset is limited to a maximum of 2 watts in GSM850/900 and 1 watt in GSM1800/1900.
• GSM has used a variety of voice codecs to squeeze 3.1 kHz audio into between 5.6 and 13 kbit/s.
• GSM was further enhanced in 1997 with the Enhanced Full Rate (EFR) codec, a 12.2 kbit/s codec that uses a full rate channel.
• There are five different cell sizes in a GSM network—macro, micro, pico, femto and umbrella cells. The coverage area of each cell varies according to the implementation environment.
• Macro cells can be regarded as cells where the base station antenna is installed on a mast or a building above average roof top level.
• Micro cells are cells whose antenna height is under average roof top level; they are typically used in urban areas.
• Pico cells are small cells whose coverage diameter is a few dozen meters; they are mainly used indoors.
• Femto cells are cells designed for use in residential or small business environments and connect to the service provider’s network via a broadband internet connection.
• Umbrella cells are used to cover shadowed regions of smaller cells and fill in gaps in coverage between those cells.
• Cell horizontal radius varies depending on antenna height, antenna gain and propagation conditions from a couple of hundred meters to several tens of kilometers. The longest distance the GSM specification supports in practical use is 35 kilometres (22 mi)..
• Indoor coverage is also supported by GSM and may be achieved by using an indoor picocell base station, or an indoor repeater with distributed indoor antennas fed through power splitters, to deliver the radio signals from an antenna outdoors to the separate indoor distributed antenna system.
• These are typically deployed when a lot of call capacity is needed indoors, for example in shopping centers or airports. However, this is not a prerequisite, since indoor coverage is also provided by in-building penetration of the radio signals from nearby cells.
• The modulation used in GSM is Gaussian minimum-shift keying (GMSK), a kind of continuous-phase frequency shift keying.
• In GMSK, the signal to be modulated onto the carrier is first smoothed with a Gaussian low-pass filter prior to being fed to a frequency modulator, which greatly reduces the interference to neighboring channels (adjacent channel interference).
GSM SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE
Architecture of the GSM network
A GSM network is composed of several functional entities, whose functions and interfaces are specified. Figure 1 shows the layout of a generic GSM network. The GSM network can be divided into three broad parts. The Mobile Station is carried by the subscriber. The Base Station Subsystem controls the radio link with the Mobile Station. The Network Subsystem, the main part of which is the Mobile services Switching Center (MSC), performs the switching of calls between the mobile users, and between mobile and fixed network users. The MSC also handles the mobility management operations. Not shown is the Operations and Maintenance Center, which oversees the proper operation and setup of the network. The Mobile Station and the Base Station Subsystem communicate across the Um interface, also known as the air interface or radio link. The Base Station Subsystem communicates with the Mobile services Switching Center across the A interface.
Figure 1. General architecture of a GSM network
After field visit to mobile service directorate and discussion with concerned personnel, we are enlightened about the following managerial aspect:
• Employees are the back bone of any organization. To meet the goals, motivated employees with work atmosphere is essential.
• It is one of the successful organizations. We found reward system — be it skilled based, individual reward, or team reward for the motivation.
• Employees are also included in sharing profit and allowances are provided if they are engaged in field visit. Of course there is provision of job enlargement, and job enrichment for the work motivation.
• There are different kinds of welfare and funds for the welfare of the employees after they retire similar to “Sanchaya Kosh ” for the governmental officials.
b) Personnel Management
• We found effective management of personnel in this organization. Policy and Executive group, that consists of the Board of Directors, selected from the general assembly of the shareholders, are concerned with the determination of overall objectives, policies establishing the long term planning and framework to carry out the activities of an organization.
• Administrative and the functional group, that consists of Managing Directors for different region of developments such as ERD, WRD, FWRD etc are concerned with different departments such as marketing, finance, material management, switching, manpower management, account.
• There are in total 11 levels of office personnel working in TCL starting from the guard and sweepers to the board of directors in the hierarchy.
• Selection of staff is very fare. Advertisement for the post will be announced in the daily magazines. Karmachari Bharna Samiti has the sole responsibility of selecting the employee as per the Karmachari Biniyamawali. Written test will be conducted and the qualified applicants will have to face the interview for making his way to Nepal Telecom.
c) Organizational Behavior
• As organization is established to meet its certain objective, satisfying people’s needs, with better services. So proper understanding of people’s feeling, thinking plays vital role for the economic and managerial boom of organization.
• Happy worker is productive worker so their rights should be ensured. Keeping this point in mind, to fight for the right of the office personnel, there is an association of workers in NTCL for collective bargaining purpose and negotiation if needed.
PROBLEMS PREVAILING IN GSM SERVICES
It would be unwise and unfair, not to accept the revolution that the Nepal Telecom has made in the field of communication by introducing the GSM cellular services. In this era of globalization through technologies, though countries like ours have just embarked to have technology, role of mobile communication is incomparable.
GSM communication is possible only with proper coordination between technology, equipment, and man, so in context of Nepal we subscriber are facing many problems.
• To be valid user of GSM mobile we must have subscriber identity module (SIM) provided by Nepal Telecom. Due to high demand customer has to suffer during subscription.
• Very long queue can be seen during submission of registration form and subscriber has to wait long time for getting their SIM.
• No scheme of online registration.
• Existence of black marketing.
• Management seems irresponsible and unwilling to increase the capacity, on the other hand subscriber is increasing day by day, and in effect we are not getting effective services.
• Subscriber become used to hearing network busy, not reachable etc.
• Even in certain places, no network tower is seen in hand set.
Interference Between users
• Interference is most noticeable problems in GSM services.
• Hardly can we have clear communication.
• Various noises will be heard while communicating. Sometimes voice will be heard with pause.
• Sometimes voices of irrespective person will be heard.
• Though its mission is to provide nation-wide reliable telecommunication services, nationwide coverage is not achieved yet.
• Since switching and control unit is limited only in Kathmandu, GSM network coverage is only available for 39 districts out of 75 districts.
• Like other organization, shamefully it is also suffered from countries unstable politics.
• Political interference has direct impact on nomination of office personnel.
Internal System Problem
• Subscriber has suffered many times due to internal system failure.
• Balance transfer service is affected due to error in internal system for several weeks.
FUTURE TREND IN GSM SERVICES
To remain a dominant player in telecommunication sector in the Country while also extending reliable and cost effective services to all, Nepal Telecom has to expand and improve prevailing technology. For this purpose Nepal Telecom is planning to launch various services and projects.
• To ease and facilitate its valued customer, start of online registration applications by this year for GSM pre-paid mobile lines.
• Currently 253 BTSs in Kathmandu valley and 317 BTSs out of valley are providing services. To improve the network installation of additional 150 BTSs in Kathmandu valley is in progress.
• At present, NT has a total of 12,19,000 mobile subscribers in the country. To meet the growing demand NT intends to expand the existing GSM network by adding another 3.5 millions subscriber lines to make the GSM penetration from the current 2.7% to 16% with the population coverage of about 45%.
• Projects divided into three different regions namely; Network I, Network II, Network III shall be implemented fully on turn key basis to cover all five development region.
• To provide reliable telecommunications voice and data services as well as to provide CDMA/GSM backhaul links in various remote sites of Nepal ,NT intends to deploy VSAT terminals in ku-Band using satellite in IOR.
• NT is planning to deploy Next Generation Network (NGN) as an alternative technology providing unified resources for voice and multimedia communication.
• In its continuous effort in modernizing the overall national telecommunication network structure in Nepal ,NT aims to replace some of the existing rural telecommunication network which is now obsolete or existing with exhausted capacity.
• NT intends to implement SDH based Microwave Radio Network using optical fiber network as the main source of transmission.
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
From our point of view this case study is really proven beneficial. As students of electronics engineering we acquired key aspect of GSM technology, in addition we became quite literate about managerial aspect of organization during field visit to Nepal Telecom, and Mobile Service Directorate.
During field visit we found Nepal Telecom as, systematic, highly equipped organization run by technocrats with sound work environments. As its services are fully depends upon the technologies deployed, it’s obvious to have various complains regarding its services. To meet its goal with public faith, it needs to concede public complains as an inspiration.
We would like to recommend following points regarding the pitfalls that we mentioned previously.
• Without customer this organization cannot be imagined. So customer service should given high priority.
• Subscription process should be easy, that may be achieved either through online registration or by increasing no of subscription counter.
• Current configuration is not fully capable to cater its services effectively so capacity of deployed technology should be improved and expanded to hold the today’s excessive subscriber growth.
• Effective measures should put forth to control black marketing of SIM cards.
• Emphasis should be on recruitment of technically sound man power rather, influenced by political appointment.
• Technology is just like a guest of one day; it will change and update everyday. Newer technology will invent by the night so system as well as man power should be updated and brainstormed towards new technology.
• Political interference should be completely discouraged, if it is committed to its valued customer.
• Office personnel should be affable, loyal to customer